Threat And Hazard Annex

Shane Goodreau

Grand Canyon University: EMM-685

Dr. Robert Ditch

15 February 2023

Threat and Hazard Annex: Cyber Attack


Cyber-attacks are a growing concern for organizations, governments, and individuals alike. As technology continues to advance, so do the methods used by malicious actors to access and exploit vulnerabilities in computer systems and networks (Tusher et al., 2022). This threat and hazard annex provides a comprehensive overview of the actions and considerations specific to the risk of cyber-attacks.

Threat Overview

Cyber-attacks are malicious actions taken by individuals or organizations that aim to cause harm to digital systems, networks, and information. These attacks can take many forms, including but not limited to viruses, malware, phishing scams, denial-of-service attacks, and unauthorized access to sensitive information (Wilson et al., 2019). The end goal of these attacks is typically to steal sensitive information, cause damage to systems, or disrupt normal operations.

Hazard Identification and Analysis

To mitigate the risk of cyber-attacks, it is essential to understand the potential hazards and their impacts. A thorough hazard identification and analysis should include an assessment of the likelihood of an attack and the potential consequences if an attack were to occur. Key considerations include:

· The type of information stored on digital systems and the potential impact if this information were to be compromised.

· The criticality of the systems and networks in question, including the impact on operations if they were to be disrupted.

· The current level of security measures in place and the ability of these measures to prevent or mitigate the impact of an attack.

· The current level of employee awareness and training related to cyber security and their ability to identify and report potential threats.

Response and Mitigation Strategies

To effectively respond to and mitigate the risk of cyber-attacks, organizations must have a comprehensive plan in place. Key strategies to consider include:

· Implementing strong security measures, including firewalls, anti-virus software, and access control measures.

· Regularly monitoring systems and networks for potential threats and taking prompt action to address any identified vulnerabilities.

· Providing regular training and awareness programs to employees to help them identify and report potential threats.

· Developing a comprehensive incident response plan that outlines the steps to be taken in the event of a cyber-attack, including the roles and responsibilities of different individuals and teams (Yohanandhan et al., 2020).

· Regularly testing the incident response plan to ensure that all stakeholders are familiar with their roles and the plan is effective in responding to the threat.

Legal and Regulatory Considerations

Organizations must also be aware of the legal and regulatory requirements related to cyber security and data protection. Key considerations include:

· The General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), which sets out the rules for the protection of personal data in the European Union (EU).

· The Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard (PCI DSS), which sets out the standards for the protection of payment card data.

· The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA), which sets out the standards for the protection of health information.


In conclusion, cyber-attacks are a growing threat that organizations must be prepared to respond to and mitigate. A comprehensive threat and hazard annex that considers the potential hazards, response and mitigation strategies, and legal and regulatory considerations is essential for effective risk management. By implementing strong security measures, providing regular training and awareness programs, and having a comprehensive incident response plan in place, organizations can reduce their risk of falling victim to a cyber-attack.


Tusher, H. M., Munim, Z. H., Notteboom, T. E., Kim, T.-E., & Nazir, S. (2022). Cyber security risk assessment in autonomous shipping. Maritime Economics & Logistics. https://doi.org/10.1057/s41278-022-00214-0

Wilson, C., Gaidosch, T., Adelmann, F., & Morozova, A. (2019). Cybersecurity Risk Supervision. In Google Books. International Monetary Fund. https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=1qsYEAAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PR7&dq=threat+and+hazard+annex+for+cyber+Attack&ots=W–zmSbfND&sig=0a4jjA0x26OsuvO4zf2EEVJT9P0

Yohanandhan, R. V., Elavarasan, R. M., Manoharan, P., & Mihet-Popa, L. (2020). Cyber-Physical Power System (CPPS): A Review on Modeling, Simulation, and Analysis With Cyber Security Applications. IEEE Access, 8, 151019–151064. https://doi.org/10.1109/access.2020.3016826